History of North Macedonia

History of North Macedonia – the beginning

This history will begin in the 7th century, when the Bulgarians, led by the sons of Khan Kubrat, carried their “Great Bulgaria” from the lands between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea, to the territories of Mysia, Thrace and Macedonia. This is the history of Bulgaria, this is also the history of North Macedonia.


A part of the Bulgarians, together with Kotrag, formed Volga-Cama Bulgaria, which lasted until the 10th century. Kuber with another part, settled in the lands of Macedonia, and Asparuh brought his Bulgarians north of the delta of the river. Danube. Later they moved into Mysia, expanded southwards and formed the Bulgarian state, which included Thrace and Macedonia. From this moment on, in Macedonia, the formation of a Bulgarian nationality with a Bulgarian national consciousness began. And during the Byzantine rule, and during the construction of the Second Bulgarian State, and during the enslavement by the Ottoman Empire, this nationality was still such. Bulgaria fought many battles over the years, lost territories and expanded, and the Bulgarians of Kuber and their lands were always the target of someone’s territorial appetites. In the Middle Ages Macedonia almost failed to settle permanently within well-defined boundaries, but nevertheless retained its Bulgarian consciousness and aspiration to “return” to Bulgaria. No other state was able to hold it. Macedonia has never accepted foreign power and culture. Bulgaria liberates it whenever it can. The population of Macedonia has been transferred from state to state, from ruler to ruler, from boyar to boyar, and has experienced anything but losing its Bulgarian national consciousness. The history of Northern Macedonia continues to be the history of the Bulgarians.

The history of North Macedonia – divisions

And so we come to the Congress of Berlin, when Bulgaria was once again fragmented because the Great Powers did not want the creation in the Balkan Peninsula of a strong state, let alone one that was extremely loyal to Russia. Macedonia remained outside the borders of the Principality of Bulgaria and, together with Belomorian Thrace and Adrianople, was returned to Turkey. Under the fear of a Turkish attack, and under the pressure of the rising public opinion for the settlement of the Macedonian question by force, the Government of Bulgaria entered into an agreement with Serbia and Greece on February 19, 1912, for a joint action against Turkey. Bulgaria concluded bilateral treaties with Serbia and Greece, which, however, after the first military successes, caused serious territorial controversies. They made themselves at home in the localities thus conquered, in spite of the treaty of alliance concluded with Bulgaria, set up their own authorities, and opened a struggle against the Bulgarian posts placed there. They do not want the freedom of Macedonia, they want to take it. The history of Northern Macedonia begins to take shape.

History of North Macedonia – Serbian terror

For the Serbs, the alliance was only a means to conquer Macedonia. The Bulgarian population was subjected to persecutions aimed at forcing them to renounce their nationality. The first reports of Serbian violence in Macedonia seemed incredible to Bulgarian society, which could not believe it, but the facts began to become more and more abundant and undeniable. Every day there were reports of violence, murder and dishonour against the Bulgarians in Macedonia. Thus began the Inter-Allied War, after which Bulgaria was forced to cede most of Macedonia to its former allies, Southern Dobrudja to Romania, and the Ottoman Empire regained Eastern Thrace. Serbia began to “prove the existence of a Serbian population in Macedonia”. The population in the conquered lands was subjected to ethnic cleansing and hundreds of thousands of Bulgarians were forced to leave their homes in Macedonia and Thrace. Even the most ordinary Bulgarian books were forbidden to enter this country, the Christian population was forbidden to baptize newborns with names other than those on a list placed in every church, which were obviously Serbian. In Servia they believe that by using such means they will succeed in changing the Bulgarian population into Servian, that they will efface its history and its past. North Macedonia, however, knows its history, remembers its past, and its population is certainly not Serbian.

The newly installed masters are stronger and crueler than the Turks, and this time Europe supports and justifies them. 500-600,000 Macedonians, a whole people, after the seizure of their homeland, seek refuge in Bulgaria. Thousands of others, all the intelligentsia, all the teachers, all the priests, all those who were undesirable and suspicious to the authorities because of their past or their connections, were expelled after the victors were settled. When they first tried to rebel or defend themselves, they faced the crushing cruelty of the new rulers. The prisons, the torture and all the atrocities, teach them to walk right along the path they have set for them. They have seen the price of disobedience. They have become soft, respectful, obedient. They have learned to laugh through their tears. The Serbs have subdued them, but have failed to assimilate them. And Macedonia, always ready to revolt, weighs like lead on Serbian policy. Even today, the history of North Macedonia reminds us of those hard times.

History of North Macedonia – Tito’s hell

In 1944, Macedonia was already part of the established Yugoslav federation. It became once again a valley of tears, blood and death. Another ordeal. Mass reprisals and assassinations were undertaken against all the prominent and more vigilant patriots in Macedonia. In 1945 and 1946 alone, more than 4,700 Bulgarians were killed or disappeared without a trace, with or without a conviction. There were massacres in Prilep, Bitola, Skopje, Veles, Kumanovo, Shtip, the villages of Maleshevo, Kavadartsi, etc. At the same time more than 15,000 people were arrested and thrown into prisons and camps, accused of being “collaborators of the Bulgarian occupier”, of “insulting” the “Macedonian national honour” and of working against the unity of Yugoslavia. Tito’s Serbo-Communism wants to wipe out the Bulgarian identity in Macedonia. Unfortunately, this continues to this day in Northern Macedonia.

History of North Macedonia – now and in the future

At the beginning of the 20th century, of the 70 thousand inhabitants of Sofia, more than 20 thousand came from Macedonia, and in the whole of Bulgaria the number of Macedonian emigrants exceeded 200 thousand. In no other neighbouring Balkan country is the presence of any significant groups of emigrants from Macedonia found. The flight of so many Macedonians to Bulgaria proves their strong spiritual connection with the Bulgarian state and people. The Bulgarian population in the Macedonian and Thracian lands is characterized by the highest degree of national self-consciousness as well as socio-economic development. At the end of the 19th century the majority of the population in Macedonia identified itself as Bulgarian. In 1991 the Republic of Macedonia became a separate, independent state. Bulgaria was the first in the world to recognise this new state and managed to persuade Russia to do the same. Two years later, the Republic of Macedonia was accepted as a member of the United Nations, and in 2020 it became a member of NATO. Since 2019, it has a new name – North Macedonia.

Balkan national egoism and Macedonia – Dafinka Mincheva
Today’s situation in Macedonia under Serbian and Greek rule and the Society of Nations – Prof. Iv. Georgiov, 1925, Sofia
The War Returns. Henri Posy

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